Scrupulosity and OCD


Religious Obsessions and Compulsions

Carol E. Watkins, MD


is Scrupulosity?

Religious belief, and membership in a faith community are important factors

in the lives of many individuals. In addition to moral and spiritual guidance,

they can provide a sense of purpose, structure and community. For a certain

individuals, religious beliefs become compulsive, joyless behaviors. The

individual may constantly worry that he or she might say or do something

blasphemous. He may fear that he has committed sin, forgotten it and then

neglected to repent for the sin. He may spend long hours searching his mind to

try to ferret out evidence of un-confessed sins. He is unable to feel forgiven.

Specific obsessions and compulsions vary according to the individual�s

religion. An Orthodox Jew might worry that he did not perform a particular

ritual correctly. He might obsess about this for hours. A Roman Catholic might

go to confession several times a day. Another individual could believe that

anything he does might be sinful. This individual might become so paralyzed

with doubt, that he or she becomes afraid to do or say anything at all.

Scrupulosity and OCD

Religious faith and religious education are not

generally the causes of Scrupulosity. Actually, Scrupulosity is a form of

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. (OCD) OCD appears to be a biologically based

disorder with severe psychological consequences. The disorder occurs in 2-3% of

the population (5-7 million sufferers in the U.S.). About 10% of the

first-degree relatives of affected persons also have OCD.

Obsessions are recurrent

thoughts or impulses that make the person anxious (such as the fear that using

a public toilet will make one sick) The obsessions persist despite efforts to

control or suppress them. They feel intrusive and disturbing even though the

person knows that they come from his own mind. Obsessions may include fear of

harming someone, contamination or of doing something embarrassing.

Compulsions are repetitive

behaviors or mental acts the person feels driven to perform, often with

ritualistic rigidity, to prevent the anxiety connected with the obsessions.

These may include urges to wash, count, check or repeat phrases to oneself.

OCD can occur in different forms. There are a

variety of different types of obsessions and compulsions. The nature of

intensity of these symptoms may vary over time. Aggressive, sexual and

religious obsessions sometimes occur together in the same individual.


Differentiating Scrupulosity from Devout

Religious Faith and Practice

Because these obsessions and compulsions are

intertwined in the individual�s religious life, it may be difficult for him

or her to recognize that he or she has a psychiatric condition. An individual

with religious obsessions often may focus excessively on one particular concern

about sin while neglecting other aspects of his or her religion. Most religions

place a high priority on compassion and being a good neighbor. The scrupulous

individual while focusing excessively on a few specific rules may neglect this

more general dictum.

Religious leaders within the Roman Catholic and

Jewish community have addressed these issues. Commentators in both of these

groups have writings that label scrupulosity as a sin. One rabbi called it

idolatry because the excessive devotion to a specific ritual (to the detriment

of good acts toward other people) elevated the ritual to a god-like status. In

his book, The Doubting Disease, JW Ciarrocchi reviews Roman Catholic

pastoral writings over past centuries. He feels that some of the things that

priests did to help scrupulous individuals anticipated current treatments for



Treatment of Scrupulosity

Like other forms of OCD, scrupulosity responds

to medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Prior to studies in the 1980’s,

the usual view of OCD was that it was a relatively rare disorder with a poor

prognosis. However, in addition to it being now recognized as much more common

(2-3% prevalence rate), it is generally considered treatable. About 60%�80%

of patients show some degree of response to treatment.

The serotonin system in the brain seems to be

involved in the pathology of OCD, since the medications that have been shown to

be help treat OCD increase the availability of this neurotransmitter. These

medications include the serotonin re-uptake inhibitors: clomipramine,

fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, and citalopram.

Cognitive-Behavioral therapy�specifically ERP

[Exposure and Response Prevention]�has been successfully used for the

treatment of OCD. The idea behind ERP is that compulsions provide only a

temporary reduction of the anxiety produced by obsessions. Furthermore, the

only way to experience more permanent relief is to habituate (grow tolerant

of�”get used to”) the anxiety caused by the obsession–without

performing the compulsion. Habituation is the key factor, and clinicians start

by identifying triggers that bring on obsessional thoughts and compulsive

behaviors. Then they develop a graduated hierarchy of anxiety based on the

patient’s report. The patient “challenges” him or herself by

gradually moving up the hierarchy.  In addition to exposure, the patient

is instructed to refrain from carrying out the associated rituals or at least

to delay the rituals by several minutes. .

This treatment can be adapted to religious

obsessions and compulsions. However, the therapist must proceed with

sensitivity to the individual�s cultural and religious beliefs. If this is

not done, the therapy may actually increase anxiety and resistance.

Coordination Between Psychiatrist and Clergy

It is often useful for the psychiatrist and the

individual�s religious leader to work together. In some cases, with

permission, the psychiatrist and the religious leader may speak directly. In

many other cases, the individual in treatment can be the communication bridge.

The religious leader can help the individual distinguish legitimate concerns

about faith and guilt from stereotyped religious obsessions. As the person with

scrupulosity begins to face his fears, he may experience a temporary increase

in anxiety. The religious leader can then be a source of support and

encouragement. In some cases, clergy will give the individual permission to

visualize things that would usually be considered sinful thoughts if it is part

of the treatment for this condition. If an individual is compulsively repeating

a ritual until it is perfect, the clergy may need to give the individual

special permission to perform a ritual in a less than perfect manner.

Although the psychiatrist may coordinate with

clergy, the psychiatrist usually remains neutral about the individual�s

particular religious beliefs. Psychotherapy and religious conversion are

different things. However, within the context of psychiatric treatment, the

individual is often able to gain control of his or her OCD and Scrupulosity.

This can lead to freedom from excessive guilt and stereotyped religious

obsessions. Ultimately, the individual is freed to experience a richer life in

his or her family and faith community.


Obsessions may often

involve thoughts which seem unacceptable to the individual, so that he or she

feels ashamed. Because of this, many people keep their thoughts a secret and

suffer silently. In the past decade, there have been advances in the behavioral

and pharmacological treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For helpful

mental health links, please see our web page   


Links related to OCD 

  • Obsessive-Compulsive

    Foundation This organization is by and for individuals with OCD. The

    site contains information on medication, psychotherapy and support for

    individuals with OCD. There is a chat room and a message board.

  • American Anxiety Disorders Association An

    organization for individuals who experience the spectrum of anxiety

    disorders. This is a link to a

    self administered test for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

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Copyright � 2008 Northern County Psychiatric Associates

Last modified:

January 20, 2008